Science and Technology of Energetic Materials

Vol.74, No.3 (2013)

Research paper

The mixture of the phase stabilized ammonium nitrate containing potassium nitrate and 1HT as the new gas generant composition
Kazuo Hasue and Kazuya Yoshitake


A new gas generant for air bags was investigated. Ammonium nitrate (AN) does not give off harmful gases or solid burning residues but goes through contraction and expansion during a series of phase transitions which cause structural damage. In this study, potassium nitrate-phase stabilized ammonium nitrate (PSANKN) was prepared by a nonhazardous aqueous method. Thermal analysis indicated that PSANKN without the phase transition near room temperature was obtained by adding more than 5wt% potassium nitrate. 1H-tetrazole (1HT) was selected because it has a large heat of formation and decomposes by itself in N2 atmosphere and the burning of 1HT/AN mixture has been reported. The melting point, burning rate, gas generation ability by means of 4 L tank test, the mol% and wt% of each generated product, efficiency of gas evolution, wt% of solid products, number of moles of generated gas per 100g of gas generant, wt% of solid products, calorific value of per mole of gas generates, and sensitivities were obtained to evaluate the characteristics that indicate desirable gas generants.

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PSAN, 1H-tetrazole, gas generant, burning rate, 4 L tank test

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