Science and Technology of Energetic Materials

Vol.66, No.1 (2005)


Combustion characteristics of the consolidated mixtures of 5-amino-1H-tetrazole and sodium perchlorate
Yasuyoshi Miyata, Hisaya Kanou, Shingo Date, and Kazuo Hasue


Recently, 5-amino-1H-tetrazole (5-ATZ) has been developed for practical use as a substitute for sodium azide, which has been conventionally used as a main component of gas generating agent for automobile airbags. This paper describes the study concerning fundamental combustion features of the mixtures of 5-ATZ and sodium perchlorate (SP) which has high oxygen content per unit mass. The 5-ATZ/SP mixture was consolidated to form test strands. An optical strand burner was used to measure the burning rate of the strands.

The burning rate for 5-ATZ/SP at 2 MPa was about 18 mm s-1 for a stoichiometric mixture which was higher than that of 5-ATZ/strontium nitrate (SrN) mixture. The decomposition of 5-ATZ/SP underwent three-stage process and at the second stage, near 720 K, the reaction between fuel and oxidizer occured. According to the closed vessel test, 5-ATZ/SP displayed 3.4 times larger pressure gradient than that of 5-ATZ/SrN mixture, suggesting the former's its superior performance as a gas generating agent. it was also found from the interpretation of the burning rates according to Granular Diffusion Flame model suggested by Summerfield, that combustion mechanism of the samples used in this study was is diffusion controlled.

According to the temperature history of the mixtures, an increase in burning rate with an increase in pressure is an increase in the amount of heat transfer from the gas phase to the solid phase because of the approach of the flame to the burning surface.

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